Wednesday, April 26, 2017

Posts on 19th Century Economic History (Updated)

Below are updated links to various posts on 19th century economic history, in the US, the UK, Australia and Japan, as well posts analysing the deflation of 1873 to 1896.

(1) General
“The Gold Standard did not Prevent Price Inflation,” October 26, 2012.

“The Classical Gold Standard Era was a Myth,” March 18, 2013.

“The Profit Deflation of the 1890s,” June 13, 2013.

“Alfred Marshall’s Judgement on the ‘Depression’ of 1873–1896,” June 13, 2013.

“S. B. Saul on the Profit Deflation of the 1873–1896 Period,” June 14, 2013.

“The Original Economic Use of the Word ‘Inflation’?,” August 4, 2014.

“Malthus on Nominal Wage Rigidity,” May 25, 2015.

“Henry Thornton on Downwards Nominal Wage Rigidity,” December 1, 2014.

“Wage Stickiness in 1890s Germany,” December 7, 2015.

(2) The US
“Woods on ‘Sound Money’ and Deflation: A Critique,” March 17, 2013.

“19th Century Deflation and Recession in the US,” February 9, 2013.

“US GNP Estimates in the Recession of the 1890s,” January 18, 2011.

“Government Intervention, James J. Hill and the Great Northern Railway,” July 26, 2011.

“US Real GNP Estimates 1869–1879,” December 4, 2011.

“The US Recessions of the 1890s in Balke and Gordon,” December 5, 2011.

“Why was US Unemployment so High in the 1890s?,” December 6, 2011.

“US Real GNP Growth in the 1880s,” December 6, 2011.

“Real US GNP Growth Rates 1870–1900 in Balke and Gordon,” December 6, 2011.

“Real US GNP Growth Rates 1870–1900 in Romer,” December 6, 2011.

“Real GDP and GDP per capita, 1870–1913, Selected Nations,” December 7, 2011.

“Real US GNP Growth Rates 1870–1913 in Balke and Gordon,” December 8, 2011.

“Real US GNP Growth Rates 1870–1913 in Romer,” December 9, 2011.

“US Unemployment in the 1890s,” January 24, 2012.

“US Unemployment, 1869–1899,” January 26, 2012.

“Real US GNP Growth Rates, 1873–1896,” February 26, 2012.

“Thomas E. Woods on Keynesian Predictions vs. American History: A Critique,” May 29, 2012.

“Davis on US Recessions in the 19th Century,” August 25, 2012.

“Reply to ‘Unemployment, Deflation and Growth During the Period of 1873–1896,’” September 6, 2012.

“Per Capita GDP Growth Rates During the Gold Standard Era,” September 11, 2012.

“US Real Per Capita GDP from 1870–2001,” September 24, 2012.

“Rothbard on the US Economy in the 1870s: A Critique,” September 24, 2012.

“US Unemployment Graph, 1869–1899,” February 27, 2013.

“US Unemployment in the 1890s Again,” February 20, 2014.

“US Unemployment in the 1890s: Who is Right?,” December 30, 2013.

“US Industrial Production in the 1890s,” January 2, 2014.

“Were Nominal Wages Flexible in 1890s and Early 1900s America?,” January 31, 2014.

“Weir on Historical Estimates of US Unemployment,” February 9, 2014.

“A US Wholesale Price Index 1860–1914,” June 3, 2014.

“Protectionism and US Economic History,” June 8, 2014.

“US Industrial Production Index 1800–1914,” June 9, 2014.

“US Bank Suspensions 1864–1970,” January 8, 2015.

“Real US GDP 1870–2001,” January 13, 2015.

“Huerta de Soto gets it Wrong on the Gold Standard,” December 20, 2014.

“The 1870s Economic Crisis in America: Reality versus Rothbard,” October 5, 2015.

(3) The Deflation of 1873 to 1896
“Libertarian Gold Standard Myths Never Die,” January 13, 2015.

“Neoclassical and Quantity Theory Explanations of the 1873–1896 Deflation,” January 7, 2015.

“More Evidence on the Profit Squeeze of 1873–1896,” January 5, 2015.

“UK Gross Domestic Fixed Capital Formation in the 1873 to 1896 Deflation,” December 18, 2014.

“Nominal Wage Rigidity in the US and the UK 1865/1880–1913,” December 16, 2014.

“Armitage-Smith on the Profit Deflation of the 1873–1896 Era,” December 15, 2014.

“UK Average Money Earnings 1880–1913,” December 14, 2014.

“UK Real Per Capita GDP 1830–1913,” December 13, 2014.

“British Money Wages in the 1873–1896 Deflation,” December 10, 2014.

“Saul’s The Myth of the Great Depression, 1873–1896,” December 8, 2014

“Alfred Marshall on the Deflation of 1873–1896,” October 14, 2014.

“UK Real GDP 1830–1918,” October 8, 2012.

“Robert Giffen on the Deflation of 1873–1896,” December 7, 2014.

“Alfred Marshall on Business Confidence,” December 3, 2014.

“Alfred Marshall on Wage Stickiness and Debt Deflation,” November 30, 2014.

“The Profit Deflation of the 1890s,” June 13, 2013.

“Alfred Marshall’s Judgement on the ‘Depression’ of 1873–1896,” June 13, 2013.

“S. B. Saul on the Profit Deflation of the 1873–1896 Period,” June 14, 2013.

(4) The UK
“The Early British Industrial Revolution and Infant Industry Protectionism: The Case of Cotton Textiles,” June 22, 2010.

“UK Real GDP 1830–1918,” October 8, 2012.

“UK Unemployment, 1870–1999,” February 25, 2013.

“Britain’s Protectionism against Indian Cotton Textiles,” July 12, 2016.

(5) Australia
“The Australian Business Cycle in the 19th Century,” June 1, 2011.

“Free Banking in Australia,” May 16, 2012.

“A Tale of Two Depressions: 1930s and 1890s Australia,” May 18, 2012.

(6) Japan
“Industrial Policy in Meiji Japan,” April 14, 2012.

“Industrial Policy in Meiji Japan,” December 28, 2016.

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Friday, April 21, 2017

Bibliography of Nicholas Kaldor’s Work

Nicholas Kaldor (12 May 1908–30 September 1986) was one of the most important Post Keynesian economists of the 20th century.

Studies of Kaldor’s work and biographies of Kaldor can be found in these works:
Books and Biographies on Kaldor
Thirlwall, A. P. 1987. Nicholas Kaldor. Wheatsheaf, Brighton.

Targetti, Ferdinando. 1992. Nicholas Kaldor: The Economics and Politics of Capitalism as a Dynamic System. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Nell, Edward J. and Willi Semmler (eds.). 1991. Nicholas Kaldor and Mainstream Economics: Confrontation or Convergence?. St. Martin’s Press, New York.

Turner, Marjorie S. 1993. Nicholas Kaldor and the Real World. M. E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y.

Targetti F. and A. P. Thirlwall. 1989. The Essential Kaldor. Duckworth, London.

King, J. E. 2009. Nicholas Kaldor. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke and New York.
A complete bibliography of Kaldor’s writings can be found in Targetti, Ferdinando. 1992. Nicholas Kaldor: The Economics and Politics of Capitalism as a Dynamic System (Clarendon Press, Oxford).

Here is also a bibliography of Kaldor’s work, by no means complete, but listing many of his books and articles:
Books by Nicholas Kaldor
Kaldor, N. 1960. Essays on Economic Stability and Growth. Duckworth, London.

Kaldor, N. 1964. Essays on Economic Policy (vol. 1). Duckworth, London.

Kaldor, N. 1964. Essays on Economic Policy (vol. 2). Duckworth, London.

Kaldor, N. 1966. The Causes of the Slow Rate of Economic Growth of the United Kingdom: An Inaugural Lecture. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1967. Strategic Factors in Economic Development. Ithaca, New York.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1978. Further Essays on Economic Theory. Duckworth, London.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1980. Essays on Value and Distribution (2nd edn.). Duckworth, London.

Kaldor, N. 1982. The Scourge of Monetarism. Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York.

Kaldor, Nicolas. 1983. The Economic Consequences of Mrs. Thatcher. Duckworth, London.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1985. Economics Without Equilibrium. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y.

Kaldor, N. 1989. Further Essays on Economic Theory and Policy (ed. by F. Targetti and Α. P. Thirlwall). Holmes & Meier, New York.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1996. Causes of Growth and Stagnation in the World Economy (ed. by Carlo Filippini, Ferdinando Targetti, A. P. Thirlwall). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Collected Works of Nicholas Kaldor
There are 9 volumes of collected works of Nicholas Kaldor: volumes 1 and 2 both have first and second editions. There is a PDF of the contents pages of these collected works here.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1960. Essays on Value and Distribution (1st edn.; Collected Economic Essays volume 1). G. Duckworth, London.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1980. Essays on Value and Distribution (2nd edn.; Collected Economic Essays volume 1). Duckworth, London.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1960. Essays on Economic Stability and Growth (1st edn.; Collected Economic Essays volume 2). G. Duckworth, London.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1980. Essays on Economic Stability and Growth (2nd edn.; Collected Economic Essays volume 2). Duckworth, London.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1964. Essays on Economic Policy – Volume One (Collected Economic Essays volume 3). Duckworth, London.
I. Policies for Full Employment; II. The Control of Inflation; III. The Problem of Tax Reform

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1964. Essays on Economic Policy – Volume Two (Collected Economic Essays volume 4). Duckworth, London.
IV. Policies for International Stability; V. Country Studies

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1978. Further Essays on Economic Theory (Collected Economic Essays volume 5). Duckworth, London.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1978. Further Essays on Applied Economics (Collected Economic Essays volume 6). Duckworth, London.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1980. Reports on Taxation 1 (Collected Economic Essays volume 7). Duckworth, London.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1980. Reports on Taxation II (Collected Economic Essays volume 8). Duckworth, London.

Kaldor, N. 1989. Further Essays on Economic Theory and Policy (ed. by F. Targetti and Α. P. Thirlwall; Collected Economic Essays volume 9). Duckworth, London.

Articles by Nicholas Kaldor
Kaldor, Nicholas. 1934. “A Classificatory Note on the Determinateness of Equilibrium,” The Review of Economic Studies 1.2: 122–136.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1934. “Mrs. Robinson’s ‘Economics of Imperfect Competition,’” Economica n.s. 1.3: 335–341.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1934. “The Equilibrium of the Firm,” Economic Journal 44: 60–76.

Kaldor, N. 1935. “Market Imperfection and Excess Capacity,” Economica n.s 2.5: 33–50.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1937. “Annual Survey of Economic Theory: The Recent Controversy on the Theory of Capital,” Econometrica 5.3: 201–233.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1938. “Stability and Full Employment,” The Economic Journal 48. 192: 642–657.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1939. “Welfare Propositions of Economics and Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility,” The Economic Journal 49.195: 549–552.

Kaldor, Ν. 1939. “Capital Intensity and the Trade Cycle,” Economica 6: 40–66. [reprinted Kaldor 1960: 120–147]

Kaldor, N. 1939. “Speculation and Economic Stability,” Review of Economic Studies 7: 1–27. [reprinted in Kaldor 1960: 17–58]

Kaldor, N. 1939. “Money Wage Cuts in Relation to Unemployment: A Reply to Mr. Somers,” Review of Economic Studies 6: 232–235.

Kaldor, N. 1939. “Principles of Emergency Finance,” The Banker 51: 149–156.

Kaldor, N. 1940. “The Trade Cycle and Capital Intensity: A Reply,” Economica n.s. 7.25: 16–22.

Kaldor, N. 1940. “A Model of the Trade Cycle,” Economic Journal 50: 78–95. [reprinted in Kaldor 1960: 177–192]

Kaldor, N. 1941. “Employment and Equilibrium. A Theoretical Discussion,” Economic Journal 51: 458–473. [reprinted in Kaldor 1960: 83–100]

Kaldor, N. 1941. “The White Paper on National Income and Expenditure,” Economic Journal 51: 181–191.

Kaldor, N. 1942. “Professor Hayek and the Concertina-Effect,” Economica n.s. 9.36: 359–382.

Kaldor, N. 1942. “Models of Short-Period Equilibrium,” Economic Journal 52: 250–258.

Kaldor, N. and T. Barna. 1943. “The 1943 White Paper on National Income and Expenditure,” Economic Journal 53: 259–274.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1945–1946. “The German War Economy,” The Review of Economic Studies 13.1: 33–52.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1949. “The Economic Aspects of Advertising,” The Review of Economic Studies 18.1: 1–27.

Kaldor, N. 1955. An Expenditure Tax. George Allen & Unwin, London.

Kaldor, N. 1956. “Report of a Survey on Indian Tax Reform,” Ministry of Finance, Government of India, Delhi.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1957. “Capitalist Evolution in the Light of Keynesian Economics,” Sankhyā: The Indian Journal of Statistics 18.1–2: 173–182.

Kaldor, Nicolas. 1957. “A Model of Economic Growth,” Economic Journal 67: 591–624.

Kaldor, Ν. 1960. “A Rejoinder to Mr. Pindlay,” Review of Economic Studies 27.3: 179–181.

Kaldor, N. 1960. Suggestions for a Comprehensive Reform of Direct Taxation. Government Publications Bureau, Colombo.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1960. “The Radcliffe Report,” The Review of Economics and Statistics 42.1: 14–19.

Kaldor, N. 1961. “Increasing Returns and Technical Progress: A Comment on Professor Hicks’s Article,” Oxford Economic Papers 13.1: 1–4.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1961. “Capital Accumulation and Economic Growth,” in F. A. Lutz and D. C. Hague (eds.), The Theory of Capital. Macmillan, London.

Kaldor, N. 1962. “Comment,” Review of Economic Studies 29.3: 246–250.

Kaldor, Nicholas and James A. Mirrlees. 1962. “A New Model of Economic Growth,” The Review of Economic Studies 29.3: 174–192.

Kaldor, N. 1963. “Will underdeveloped Countries learn to Tax?,” Foreign Affairs 41.2: 410–419. K

Kaldor, N. 1964. “The Role of Taxation in Economic Development,” in N. Kaldor, Essays on Economic Policy. Volume 1. Duckworth, London. 225–254.

Kaldor, N. 1964. “International Trade and Economic Development,” Journal of Modern African Studies 2.4: 491–511.

Hart, A. G., Nicholas Kaldor, and Jan Tinbergen. 1964. “The Case for an International Commodity Reserve Currency,” in Nicholas Kaldor (ed.), Essays on Economic Policy (vol. 2). Norton, New York. 131–177.

Kaldor, N. 1964. “Panel Discussion,” in W. Baer and I. Kerstenetsky (eds.), Inflation and Growth in Latin America, Irwin, Homewood, Il. 465–469, 485–487, 499–500.

Kaldor, N. 1964. “A Positive Policy for Wages and Dividends,” in N. Kaldor, Essays on Economic Policy. Volume 1. Duckworth, London. 111–127.

Kaldor, N. 1964. “Prospects of a Wages Policy for Australia,” Economic Record 40.90: 145–155.

Kaldor, N. 1964. “A Memorandum on the Value-Added Tax,” in N. Kaldor, Essays on Economic Policy. Volume I. Duckworth, London. 266–293.

Kaldor, Ν. 1964. “Economic Problems of Chile,” in N. Kaldor, Essays on Economic Policy. Volume II. Duckworth, London. 233–287.

Kaldor, N. 1964. “Dual Exchange Rates and Economic Development,” Economic Bulletin for Latin America 9.2: 214–223. [reprinted in Kaldor 1964]

Kaldor, N. 1966. “Distribution, theory of,” Chambers’s Encyclopaedia (rev. edn.). Pergamon Press, Oxford. 557–561.

Kaldor, Ν. 1966. “Marginal Productivity and Macroeconomic Theories of Distribution: Comment on Samuelson and Modigliani,” Review of Economic Studies 33.4: 309–319. [reprinted in G. C. Harcourt and N. F. Laing. Capital and Growth. Penguin, Harmondsworth]

Kaldor, N. 1967. “Taxation in Developing States,” in D. Krivine (ed.), Fiscal and Monetary Problems in Developing States. Praeger, New York. 209–219.

Kaldor, Nicholas, 1968. “Productivity and Growth in Manufacturing Industry: A Reply,” Economica 35.140: 385–391.

Kaldor, N. 1969. “The Choice of Technology in Less Developed Countries,” Monthly Labor Review 92.8: 50–53.

Kaldor, N. 1970. “The New Monetarism,” Lloyds Bank Review 97: 1–18. [reprinted in Kaldor 1978: 1–21]

Kaldor, N. 1970. “The Case for Regional Policies,” Scottish Journal of Political Economy 17.3: 337–348.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1972. “The Irrelevance of Equilibrium Economics,” Economic Journal 82: 1237–1252.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1975. “What is Wrong with Economic Theory,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 89.3: 347–357. [reprinted in Kaldor 1978: 202–213].

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1975. “Economic Growth and the Verdoorn Law: A Comment on Mr Rowthorn’s Article,” Economic Journal 85.340: 891–896.

Kaldor, N. 1976. “Inflation and Recession in the World Economy,” Economic Journal 86: 703–714.

Kaldor, N. 1977. “Capitalism and Industrial Development: Some Lessons from Britain’s Experience,” Cambridge Journal of Economics 1.2: 193–204.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1978. “The Nemesis of Free Trade,” in N. Kaldor, Further Essays on Applied Economics. Duckworth, London. 234–241.

Kaldor, N. 1978. “The Role of Industrialisation in Latin American Inflations,” in N. Kaldor (ed.), Further Essays on Applied Economics (Collected Economic Essays volume 6). Duckworth, London. 119–137.

Kaldor, N. 1978. “The Effect of Devaluations on Trade in Manufactures,” in N. Kaldor (ed.), Further Essays on Applied Economics (Collected Economic Essays volume 6). Duckworth, London. 99–118.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1978. “The Causes of the Slow Rate of Economic Growth of the United Kingdom,” in N. Kaldor, Further Essays on Economic Theory (Collected Economic Essays volume 5). Duckworth, London. 100–138.

Kaldor, N. 1980. “General Introduction,” in Collected Economic Essays (vol. 1). Duckworth, London.

Kaldor, Ν. 1980. “Public or Private Enterprise: The Issues to be Considered,” in W. J. Baumol (ed.), Public and Private Enterprise in a Mixed Economy: Proceedings of a Conference Held by the International Economic Association in Mexico City, Macmillan, London. 1–14.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1980. “The Foundations of Free Trade Theory and their Implications for the Current World Recession,” in E. Malinvaud and J. P. Fitoussi (eds.), Unemployment in Western Countries. MacMillan Press, London. 85–100.

Kaldor, Ν. 1980. “Alternative Theories of Value and Distribution,” in N. Kaldor, Essays on Value and Distribution (2nd edn). Duckworth, London. 209–236.

Kaldor, Ν. 1980. “The Controversy on the Theory of Capital,” in N. Kaldor, Essays on Value and Distribution (2nd edn). Duckworth, London. 153–205.

Kaldor, N. 1981. Origins of the New Monetarism. University College Cardiff Press, Cardiff. [reprinted in Kaldor 1989: 160–177]

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1981. “The Role of Increasing Returns, Technical Progress and Cumulative Causation in the Theory of International Trade and Economic Growth,” Économie Appliquée 34.4: 593–617. [reprinted in Targetti and Thirlwall 1989]

Kaldor, N. 1981. “Fallacies on Monetarism,” Kredit and Kapital 4: 451–462.

Kaldor, N. and J. Trevithick. 1981. “A Keynesian Perspective on Money,” Lloyds Bank Review 139: 1–19.

Kaldor, N. 1982. “Limitations of the ‘General Theory,’” Proceedings of the British Academy 68: 259–273. [reprinted in Kaldor 1989: 74–89]

Kaldor, N. 1982. “Keynes as an Economic Adviser,” in A. P. Thirlwall (ed.), Keynes as a Policy Adviser. Macmillan, London. 2–33.

Kaldor, Nicholas. 1982. “The Radcliffe Report and Monetary Policy,” in N. Kaldor, The Scourge of Monetarism. Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York. 2–36.

Kaldor, N. 1983. “Keynesian Economics after Fifty Years,” in D. Worswick and J. Trevithick (eds.), Keynes and the Modern World. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 1–28.

Kaldor, N. 1983. “The Role of Commodity Prices in Economic Recovery,” Lloyds Bank Review 149: 21–33.

Kaldor, N. 1985. “How Monetarism Failed,” Challenge 28.2: 4–13.

Kaldor, N. 1985. “Piero Sraffa 1898–1983,” Proceedings of the British Academy 71: 615–640.

Kaldor, Ν. 1986. “Recollections of an Economist,” Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review 156: 3–26 [reprinted in Kaldor 1989: 13–37]

Kaldor, N. 1986. “The Role of Effective Demand in the Short and in the Long Run,” in A. Barrere (ed.), Keynes Today: Theories and Policies. Macmillan, London. [reprinted in Kaldor 1989: 90–99]

Kaldor, N. 1986. “Limits on Growth,” Oxford Economic Papers 38.2: 187–198.

Kaldor, N. 1989. “The Role of Commodity Prices in Economic Recovery,” in N. Kaldor, Further Essays on Economic Theory and Policy (ed. by F. Targetti and Α. P. Thirlwall). Duckworth, London. 235–250.
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